Category: prohibited transaction


Interesting Angles on the DOL’s Fiduciary Rule #26

Posted on November 1, 2016, by Fred Reish in BICE, Broker-Dealers, DOL Activity, fiduciary, prohibited transaction, Service Providers. Comments Off on Interesting Angles on the DOL’s Fiduciary Rule #26

Reasonable Compensation for IRAs: When and How Long?

This is my twenty-sixth article about interesting observations concerning the fiduciary rule and exemptions.

This article is a little different than most of my previous posts. However, it is equally as important. To get to the point, I am writing this article about reasonable compensation for advice to IRAs because of a common misunderstanding about the requirement.

In the last month or two, I have seen a number of articles and heard several comments to the effect that it will be difficult to determine reasonable compensation for IRAs because the rule is so new. Stated a little differently, the point is that the reasonable compensation requirement for IRAs will first become effective on April 10, 2017. That is not correct.

Section 4975(c)(1)(C) provides that the “furnishing of . . . services . . . between a … Read More »


Interesting Angles on the DOL’s Fiduciary Rule #24

Posted on October 20, 2016, by Fred Reish in BICE, Broker-Dealers, DOL Activity, fiduciary, prohibited transaction, prudent, Registered Investment Advisers, RIA. Comments Off on Interesting Angles on the DOL’s Fiduciary Rule #24

The Meaning of Differential Compensation Based on Neutral Factors

This is my twenty-fourth article covering interesting observations about the fiduciary rule and exemptions.

The DOL’s fiduciary “package” consists of a regulation that expands the definition of advice and exemptions, or exceptions, from the prohibited transaction (PT) rules. If a recommendation by a fiduciary adviser does not constitute a PT (e.g., does not affect the adviser’s compensation, or that of an affiliate, and does not cause a payment from a third party), no exemption is needed. However, if the fiduciary recommendation causes a PT, an exemption must be used – and most often that will be BICE – the Best Interest Contract Exemption. Therein lies the rub . . . the compensation of the financial institution (e.g., the broker-dealer) and the adviser are regulated by BICE.

Under BICE, the compensation of broker-dealers can be … Read More »


Interesting Angles on the DOL’s Fiduciary Rule #23

Posted on October 11, 2016, by Fred Reish in DOL Activity, fiduciary, prohibited transaction, prudent, Registered Investment Advisers, RIA. Comments Off on Interesting Angles on the DOL’s Fiduciary Rule #23

This is my twenty-third article about interesting observations concerning the fiduciary rule and exemptions.

When the definition of fiduciary advice is expanded on April 10, 2017, the investment and insurance recommendations of a much larger group of advisers will be classified as fiduciary advice and will, as a result, increase the focus on financial conflicts of interest (which ERISA and the Internal Revenue Code refer to as “prohibited transactions,” or PTs). My suspicion is that, for most ERISA retirement plans, there will not be a great impact on advisers—because, to a large degree, advisers to retirement plans already are acknowledged fiduciaries. (To be fair, though, there will be some impact . . . particularly on smaller plans, where some insurance companies and broker-dealers have, in the past, taken the position that their advisers are not fiduciaries. Nonetheless, based on my recent … Read More »


Interesting Angles on the DOL’s Fiduciary Rule #22

Posted on October 4, 2016, by Fred Reish in BICE, DOL Activity, fiduciary, prohibited transaction. Comments Off on Interesting Angles on the DOL’s Fiduciary Rule #22

This is my twenty-second article about interesting observations concerning the fiduciary rule and exemptions.

While the application of the new fiduciary rule and prohibited transaction exemptions to broker dealers and investment advisers is fairly obvious — if not fully understood, there has been little in the way of discussion about its application to banks. This post highlights some of those issues.

In a prior Angles article, I talked about how the fiduciary rule applies to referrals of advisers and how the prohibited transaction rules impact solicitors’ fees (see Angles No. 12). There is a similar issue for banks. For example, it appears to be a fairly common practice for employees at bank branches to recommend that customers set up IRAs and put the money into certificates of deposit, and for the bank employees to receive bonuses for the IRAs investments in the … Read More »


Interesting Angles on the DOL’s Fiduciary Rule #18

Posted on September 7, 2016, by Fred Reish in BICE, DOL Activity, fiduciary, prohibited transaction, prudent. Comments Off on Interesting Angles on the DOL’s Fiduciary Rule #18

As advisers who work with ERISA-governed retirement plans already know, an adviser’s compensation cannot be more than a reasonable amount. Because of the new fiduciary advice regulation, and the associated prohibited transaction exemptions (84-24 and the Best Interest Contract Exemption (BICE)), that requirement is being imposed on investment and insurance recommendations to IRAs. Interestingly, under the Internal Revenue Code (section 4975(d)(2)), it is already a prohibited transaction for an adviser to earn more than reasonable compensation from an IRA. However, because of lack of enforcement by the IRS, that requirement is often overlooked. As evidence of the fact that it is overlooked, think about the lack of benchmarking or similar services to help advisers determine if their compensation from an IRA is reasonable. But, that is about to change.

To appreciate the “reasonable compensation” requirement, a person needs to understand that … Read More »


Interesting Angles on the DOL’s Fiduciary Rule #12

Posted on July 14, 2016, by Fred Reish in DOL Activity, fiduciary, prohibited transaction. Comments Off on Interesting Angles on the DOL’s Fiduciary Rule #12

This is my twelfth article about interesting observations “hidden” in the fiduciary regulation and the exemptions.

The DOL has long taken the position that the recommendation of a discretionary investment manager is a fiduciary act. (At least one court has adopted that position – in a case involving investments with Madoff.)

While I am not aware of any guidance or litigation about potential prohibited transactions because of payments to persons who recommend investment managers (e.g., solicitor’s fees), from a legal perspective, if the person making the referral is a fiduciary and that person receives a fee, it may be a prohibited transaction under ERISA and the Internal Revenue Code.

To further complicate matters, when the new fiduciary rule becomes applicable on April 10, 2017, the definition of “fiduciary” will cover someone who makes referrals to both discretionary investment managers and non-discretionary investment advisers … Read More »


Interesting Angles on the DOL’s Fiduciary Rule #10

Posted on June 21, 2016, by Fred Reish in DOL Activity, fiduciary, prohibited transaction, Uncategorized. Comments Off on Interesting Angles on the DOL’s Fiduciary Rule #10

This is my tenth article about interesting observations “hidden” in the fiduciary regulation and the exemptions.

When the new fiduciary advice regulation is applicable on April 10, 2017, a recommendation to a participant to take a distribution and rollover to an IRA will be a fiduciary act. It doesn’t matter if the adviser has a pre-existing relationship with the plan or the participant, or not.

Some RIA firms and broker-dealers focused on a similar issue when FINRA issued its Regulatory Notice 13-45 in late 2013. As that notice explained, distribution recommendations are investment recommendations (and thus, in the case of FINRA, are subject to the suitability standard), but distribution education is not an investment recommendation. To avoid the additional compliance work (and possibly prohibited transactions), many RIA firms and broker-dealers adopted a distributions education approach using 13-45 as the model. While the … Read More »


Interesting Angles on the DOL’s Fiduciary Rule #6

Posted on May 24, 2016, by Fred Reish in DOL Activity, fiduciary, prohibited transaction, prudent, Uncategorized. Comments Off on Interesting Angles on the DOL’s Fiduciary Rule #6

This is my sixth article about interesting observations “hidden” in the preambles to the fiduciary regulation and the exemptions.

In some cases, the concerns about the scope of the fiduciary rule are overblown. For example, there have been some statements that advice about minimum required distributions for IRAs would be fiduciary advice. That is not the case.

In the preamble to the fiduciary regulation, the DOL explained:

“With respect to the tax code provisions regarding required minimum distributions, the Department agrees with commenters that merely advising a participant or IRA owner that certain distributions are required by tax law would not constitute investment advice. Whether such “tax” advice is accompanied by a recommendation that constitutes “investment advice” would depend on the particular facts and circumstances involved.”

So, basic advice about tax requirements and consequences is not fiduciary advice. However, if the adviser recommends which … Read More »


An Overview of the Fiduciary Rule

Posted on April 14, 2016, by Fred Reish in BICE, DOL Activity, fiduciary, prohibited transaction, Uncategorized. Comments Off on An Overview of the Fiduciary Rule

The DOL’s fiduciary rule has been published in the Federal Register. Based on our review of the regulation and conversations with our clients, here are some overview thoughts about the regulation and the two “distribution” exemptions (84-24 and BICE).

The Fiduciary Definition

The rule is much as expected. The definition of fiduciary advice continues to be very broad, capturing almost all common sales practices for investments and insurance products. It includes investment recommendations to plans, participants and IRA owners, as well as recommendations about distributions from plans and transfers and withdrawals of IRAs. All of those will be fiduciary activities.

As a result, those recommendations will be subject to the fiduciary standard when made to plans or participants, and subject to the Best Interest standard of care when made to IRA owners (if the adviser needs the prohibited transaction relief provided in … Read More »


More Thoughts on Distributions and Rollovers

Posted on April 1, 2016, by Fred Reish in DOL Activity, fiduciary, prohibited transaction. Comments Off on More Thoughts on Distributions and Rollovers

After my last post, I was asked another question about distributions and rollovers under the DOL’s proposed fiduciary regulation. Here’s the question and my answer:

Question: One thing I have heard is that all IRA Rollovers will fall under the DOL ERISA fiduciary standards with this rule.  Have you heard that?  Or, would all IRA Rollovers be covered under the new fiduciary definition, but not necessarily be ERISA covered?

Answer:  That’s generally correct, but it’s more complicated than that.

For ERISA tax-qualified plans, under the new rules a recommendation to take a distribution from a plan will be fiduciary advice subject to the prudent man rule and a duty of loyalty to the participant. And, the process must comply with the fiduciary prohibited transaction rules. That means that a fiduciary adviser can’t earn more from the rollover IRA than the adviser was earning … Read More »




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